What is prostate cancer?
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer found in men. It is estimated that the risk of a man being diagnosed with prostate cancer by their 85th birth day is 1 in 5.
Prostate cancer is the second leading reason of cancer death in men, yet it is highly curable if discovered while still confined to the prostate gland. Most prostate cancers grow slowly, usually remains confined within the prostate gland where it causes no harm. This type may need minimal or no treatment other than close surveillance. Some prostate cancers however are aggressive and can spread rapidly early detection has a much better chance of successful treatment.
What are the symptoms of prostate cancer?
Prostate cancer cause no signs or symptoms in its early stages. Symptoms may show once the cancer grows and spreads to other parts of the body. Advanced prostate cancer may lead to trouble voiding, weak or interrupted stream of urine, frequent urination at night, blood in the semen, erectile dysfunction or bony pain.
Who is most at risk of prostate cancer?
Prostate cancer incidence raise with age, majority of prostate cancers are diagnosed after the age of 65.
Men whose relatives have had prostate cancer are considered to be at high risk. Having a father or brother with the disease doubles the risk for prostate cancer.
Men with high PSA levels at a young age are at higher risk of developing and dying from prostate cancer. Men in the highest 10% of PSA concentrations at the age of 45-55 will contribute to approximately half of prostate cancer connected death occurring before the age of 70-75.
How is prostate cancer diagnosed?
Prostate cancer screening involves performing a PSA (prostate specific antigen) blood test and a prostate examination by a doctor through the rectum.PSA testing combined with DRE helps identify prostate cancers at their earliest stages.
Whether to test healthy men with no symptoms for prostate cancer is controversial. Medical organizations don’t agree on the issue of screening and whether it has significant benefits. Discuss your particular condition and the benefits and risks of screening with your doctor. Together, you can decide whether prostate cancer screening is right for you.
If an abnormality is detected on a DRE or PSA test, your doctor may recommend tests to determine whether you have prostate cancer. These tests may involve a MRI scan of the prostate or a biopsy of the prostate where a thin needle is inserted into the prostate gland to gather tissue for analysis.
What is the Gleason scoring system?
When a biopsy confirms the presence of cancer, the pathologist examines a sample of your cancer to determine how much cancer cells differ from the healthy cells. A higher grade indicates a more aggressive cancer that is more likely to spread speedily The most common scale used to evaluate the grade of prostate cancer cells is called a Gleason score. Scoring combines two numbers and can range from 6 (low risk cancer) to 10 (high risk cancer).
How is prostate cancer treated?
Many treatment options are available for prostate cancer Prostate cancer treatment is tailored to the patient’s needs, taking into account the aggressiveness of cancer, the degree to which the cancer has spread and the general health of the patient.