Surgery for kidney cancer-
Surgery is the main treatment for kidney cancer and it may be the only treatment you need. The operation will depend on the stage of the cancer and your general health.
There are different types of surgery:
•kidney-sparing surgery –removing only part of the kidney
•nephrectomy – removing the kidney entirely.
Kidney-sparing surgery is often used to treat small cancers (under 4cm). The surgeon only removes the affected part of the kidney. This type of surgery is also used with people who have only one kidney or suffer from a kidney disease.During a nephrectomy the surgeon removes the whole kidney. This is a big operation but you can live with only one kidney.There are different ways a surgeon can operate on the kidney; open, laparoscopic and robotic surgery.
If you have advanced kidney cancer, surgery will not cure the cancer. But removing the kidney may help the other treatments work better and reduce some symptoms. You will need to discuss the benefits and the risks of the operation with your specialist.
Symptoms and signs-
•Blood in the urine
•Pain or pressure in the side or back
•A mass or lump in the side or back
•Swelling of the ankles and legs
•High blood pressure
•Anemia, which is a low red blood cell count
•Loss of appetite
•Unexplained weight loss
•Recurrent fever that is not from a cold, flu, or other infection
•Smoking. Smoking tobacco doubles the risk of developing kidney cancer. It is believed to reason about 30% of kidney cancers in men and about 25% in women.
•Gender. Men are 2 to 3 times more likely to develop kidney cancer than women.
•Race. Black people have higher rates of kidney cancer.
•Age. Kidney cancer is typically found in adults and is generally diagnosed between the ages of 50 and 70.
•Nutrition and weight. Research has often shown a link between kidney cancer and obesity, which is usually caused by many years of eating a high-fat diet.
•High blood pressure. Men with high blood pressure, also called hypertension, may be more likely to develop kidney cancer.
•Overuse of certain medications. Painkillers containing phenacetin have been banned in the United States since 1983 because of their link to transitional cell carcinoma.
•Diuretics and analgesic pain pills, such as aspirin, acetaminophen, and ibuprofen, have also been linked to kidney cancer.
•Exposure to cadmium. Some studies have shown a connection between exposure to the metallic element cadmium and kidney cancer. Working with batteries, paints, or welding materials may raise a person’s risk as well. This risk is even higher for smokers who have been exposed to cadmium.
•Chronic kidney disease: People who have reduce kidney function but don’t yet need dialysis may be at higher risk for the development of kidney cancer.
•Long-term dialysis. People who have been on dialysis for a long time may develop cancerous cysts in their kidneys. These growths are usually found early and can often be removed before the cancer spreads.
Laparoscopic surgery is also sometimes called keyhole surgery. The surgeon makes 2–3 small cuts and one larger cut. They use a laparoscope to see and work inside the tummy (abdomen).
The laparoscope is a slim tube with a light and a camera that sends video images to a TV monitor. The surgeon puts the laparoscope into the abdomen through a tiny cut in the skin. A larger cut is usually made close to the belly button and is used to remove the kidney. The position of the cuts may vary from person to person. Your surgeon can advise you on this.
The surgeon may use a specialized machine to help with keyhole surgery. Instruments attached to the machine are controlled by the surgeon. This is called robotic surgery. It makes it possible for the surgeon to carry out very precise surgery.Laparoscopic surgery leaves a small wound so recovery is quicker than with open surgery.
Laparoscopic nephrectomy can be performed for various reasons:
- Kidney cancer
- Chronic infections in a non-functioning kidney
- Removal of donor kidney for transplantation
The advantages of laparoscopic nephrectomy over the open method include:
- Less invasive, less post-operative pain and discomfort
- Reduced hospital stay
- Favorable cosmetic result
Partial Nephrectomy provides patients with a secure and effective way to remove a small renal tumor, while preserving the remainder of the kidney. This is a minimally invasive technique, which provides patients with less discomfort and equivalent results when compared to the traditional open surgery.
Kidney-sparing surgery is often used to treat small cancers (under 4cm). The surgeon only removes the have an effect on part of the kidney. This type of surgery is also used with people who have only one kidney or suffer from a kidney disease.
During a nephrectomy the surgeon removes the whole kidney. This is a big operation but you can live with only one kidney.
There are different ways a surgeon can operate on the kidney; open, laparoscopic and robotic surgery.
If you have advanced kidney cancer, surgery will not cure the cancer. But removing the kidney may help the other treatments work better and decrease some symptoms. You will need to discuss the benefits and the risks of the operation with your specialist.
The benefits of a partial nephrectomy are that you preserve most of the kidney, and you can preserve kidney function in most patients.” The Surgical System provides an effective, minimally invasive alternative to both open surgery and laparoscopy for complex surgical procedures.
The main advantage of partial nephrectomy is in preserving renal function. The kidneys filter the blood and remove waste through making urine. The body cannot adequately survive without adequate renal function. Partial nephrectomy is necessary when the overall kidney function is suboptimal, when there is a single kidney, or when there are multiple kidney cancers in both kidneys. Preservation of renal function have been linked with less risk of suffering from heart disease and longer overall survive.
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