About urology conditions

Androgen Deficiency-


Testosterone is the most important male sex hormone in men and it is required for regular reproductive and sexual function. Testosterone is plays a key role in masculine growth and development during puberty, and for the features typical of adult men such as facial and body hair.

Androgen, or testosterone, deficiency is when the body is not capable to make enough testosterone for the body to function usually Although not a life-threatening problem, androgen deficiency can affect your value of life.

When it occurs in adult men, the signs and symptoms may include:

•Erectile dysfunction and Infertility
•reduce in beard and body hair growth
•reduce in muscle mass
•Development of breast tissue (gynaecomastia)
•Loss of bone mass (osteoporosis)

Hypogonadism can also reason mental and emotional changes. As testosterone decrease, some men may experience symptoms similar to those of menopause in women.
These may include:

•decrease sex drive
•Difficulty concentrating
•Hot flashes

The doctor will ask questions and perform a physical examination to assess for the symptoms and signs of low testosterone and work out what it may be cause by.Two separate blood tests taken on different days are necessary to confirm low testosterone levels. A diagnosis of androgen deficiency is only confirmed when blood tests show a lower than normal testosterone level.

Androgen deficiency is treated with testosterone replacement to give testosterone in doses that return the body testosterone levels to usual. it works very well for men with confirmed androgen deficiency. Once started, testosterone therapy is usually continued for life and needs to be checked regularly by a doctor.

Bladder Cancer-


Bladder cancer is the abnormal enlargement of cells that make up the bladder.Bladder cancer is answerable for approximately 3% of all malignancies diagnosed in Australia each year. It is more common in men than women and typically affect those over 60 years of age. Smoking is the biggest risk reason.

Bladder cancer at an early stage of enlargement may not produce any noticeable signs or symptoms. Common signs of bladder cancer include haematuria , which is generally painless and may appear only from time to time over a few months, a burning sensation during urination and a need to urinate often.When bladder cancer cause noticeable symptoms, they are generally related to the irritation brought about by tumour growth. Irritable symptoms include urination that is frequent, urgent, painful or difficult.If a bladder tumour blocks a urethra , patients may experience pain in the side of the body between the ribs and the top of the hip. In some cases, tumour growth may constrict the urethra and slow the flow of the urine. Bladder cancers may also shed pieces of dead tissue, fragments of other tissue and other forms of tumour-related matter that are then passed out with the urine.

If the tumour has spread beyond the bladder to the surrounding tissue, you may knowledge pelvic pain, bone pain at the site of the new cancer, leg swelling (edema) due to the involvement of lymph nodes, loss of weight and fatigue. Anemia and high blood levels of urea and other metabolic by-products, often due to urinary tract obstruction, may be further indications of late-stage bladder cancer.Since such symptoms are also reason by bacterial infections and kidney stones, it is essential to see your doctor for an accurate diagnosis.Bladder cancer can be treated with surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy.When you experience symptoms of bladder cancer, your doctor will conduct physical examinations in order to formulate an exact diagnosis. Other tests such as cystoscopy biopsy and intravenouspyelogram (dye is injected and traced with CT).A number of treatments may be used in conjunction with each other. The choice of treatments depends on a number of factors, including age, generally health and the extent and stage of the tumour. Discuss this with your doctor to ascertain the most appropriate course of treatment for you.


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